The Republic of Moldova is mainly a country of migration origin rather than a country of migratory destination or transit. The migration situation is characterized mainly by the emigration of Moldovan citizens, with about 17.5 percent formally settled abroad for good, having left for work, studies or family reintegration.
Although the migration flow towards the Russian Federation, Ukraine and other CIS states is big, migration flows to the European Union and North America are significantly increasing. Besides the high number of Moldovan diaspora in Italy, migration to other European states could also increase, specifically to Ireland, Portugal and Spain. This trend is influenced by the possibility of Moldovans acquiring citizenship in EU member states and the abolition of the visa regime since April 2014.
This migration profile represents a major strategic factor, as well as a potential risk for the country. The National Development Strategy, “Moldova 2020,” reveals migration importance for development because the trends related to the economic growth and poverty reduction in Moldova are closely correlated with remittance flows and the consumption that ensues. Thus, migration is an interdisciplinary phenomenon, affecting all segments of the population, public and private institutions. Activities related to migration and diaspora affects many areas and sectors.
Nationally, the detailed analysis of the migration situation and its impact on Moldova’s economy and society is annually presented in the “Extended Migration Profile” report developed by the Bureau for Migration and Asylum of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
The main migration characteristics influencing the long-term development of Moldova are:
1. Lack of stability due to movement of citizens
2. Impact on the social-demographic situation
3. Development potential through remittances
The state's policies on diaspora, migration and development are drafted and promoted at the national level through a complex exercise of functional duties by the following line ministries, central public authorities and institutions:
1. The State Chancellery is the central authority responsible for the policy on diaspora relations through the Bureau for Diaspora Relations, which coordinates the implementation of such policies, contributing to conservation and affirmation of the ethnical, cultural and linguistic identity of Moldovans from abroad, harnessing diaspora’s human and material potential. The Bureau for Diaspora Relations also coordinates the cultural, educational, economic and social activities carried out by different ministries and other public authorities for supporting and collaborating with diaspora representatives;
2. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, which ensures the rights of the Moldovan citizens outside the country, defines the visa policies and provides consular services;
3. The Ministry of Labour, Social Protection and Family and National Employment Agency, which participates in drafting policies on labour emigration/immigration, assurance of migrant workers’ social security, development of pre-emigration, and post-emigration and migrants’ (re) integration policies;
4. The Ministry of Internal Affairs (Bureau for Migration and Asylum, Border Police), which is responsible for drafting policies on immigration, foreigners’ status, asylum issues, readmission and return of persons, border management, counteracting illegal migration, trans-border crime, and annual development of the Extended Migration Profile;
5. The Ministry of Economy, which develops policies on investments, use of remittances and other related issues;
6. The Ministry of Education, which ensures the development and implementation of policies on emigration of teachers, recognition of educational diplomas obtained in other countries by our citizens, recognition of education to continue the studies or to get employed;
7. The Ministry of Health, which exercises roles in policies related to emigration of health workers and compulsory health insurance.
Nationally Identified Migration and Developmental Priorities
National Migration Related Policies
- National Strategy on Migration and Asylum of Moldova, 2011-2020
- Action Plan for 2011-2015 of the National Strategy on Migration and Asylum of Moldova, 2011-2020
- National Diaspora Strategy 2025
- Government Ordinance for the establishment of the Diaspora Relations Bureau
- Government Ordinance on the establishment of a Migration Mainstreaming mechanism
- Action Plan for 2011-2013 of the National Strategic Program on Demographic Security of Moldova, 2011-2025
- National Strategic Program on Demographic Security of Moldova, 2011-2025
- Amended Action Plan of the Government of Moldova, 2012-2015
- Law on the Regime for Foreigners in the Republic of Moldova